Assessoria para Assuntos Internacionais e Interinstitucionais
A country of continental dimensions and 500 years of history, Brazil occupies a distinguished position in South America and possesses the prerequisite conditions to become one of the most powerful nations.
April 22, 1500 - The Portuguese navigator Pedro Alvares Cabral, fleet commander to India, arrives on the southern coast of Bahia, in the same area that is now known as the city of Porto Seguro, thus discovering Brazil.
September 07, 1822 - Dom Pedro I proclaims the independence of Brazil.
1824 - The Brazilian Constitution is written.
November 15, 1889 – Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca proclaims the end of Monarchism and establishes a Federal Republic (1889 to 1930).
1891 - The Legislative Congress promulgates the second Brazilian Constitution, the first of the Republic.
1930 - The "Revolution of 1930" begins, overthrowing President Washington Luiz and initiating the "Vargas Era" (1930 to 1945).
April 1964 – The military regime is in power until 1984.
1989 - The first presidential election by popular vote is held and Fernando Collor de Mello is elected President of Brazil.
1992 - Collor resigns and Itamar Franco becomes the new President.
1993 - A referendum declares the Republic and Presidential Regime to be the governmental system of Brazil.
1994 - Fernando Henrique Cardoso, one of the main backers of the "Real Plan", is elected President and reelected in 1998.
2002 - Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva is elected with over 60 million votes, making him the second president in the world to be chosen by such a large number of votes.
Located on the eastern side of the South American continent, the Federal Republic of Brazil, with a total area of 8,514,877 km2, occupies almost 50% of the continental territory. Around 58% of Brazil is covered in forests, including the Amazon Forest, the largest in the world. The country has eight fluvial basins, containing approximately 20% of the freshwater on the planet.
Brazil is divided into 5 regions (North, Northeast, Midwest, South and Southeast), with 26 states (Acre, Alagoas, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondônia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Sergipe and Tocantins) plus the Federal District.
The Federal District is located in Brasília, in the Midwest region.
The official language is Portuguese.
Most Populated Cities
São Paulo (11,037,593), Rio de Janeiro (6,186,710), Salvador (2,998,056), Brasília (2,606,885), Belo Horizonte (2,452,617), Recife (1,561,659) and Porto Alegre (1,436,123).
Form of Government
Brazil is a Federative Republic, governed by the Constitution of 1988. The Government of the Republic is organized in three branches: the Executive Branch, exercised by the President, elected every four years by a direct voting system and aided by the Ministers of State; the Legislative Branch, exercised by the National Congress, Legislative Assemblies and Municipal Chambers; the Judicial Branch, composed of the Supreme Court (Federal), Superior Court of Justice, Federal Courts, State Courts, Labor Courts, Electoral Courts and Military Courts. Voting is secret and compulsory for those aged 18 years and older, although it is optional for those between 16 and 18 years of age.
According to 2012 estimates, Brazil has over 190 million inhabitants, considering:
84% urban / 16% rural
48.5% men / 51.5% women
Life Expectancy 69 - men 76 - women
Illiteracy Index - 11%
The official currency is the Real.
Brazilian Foreign Trade
The major Brazilian export products are: iron, ore, coffee, soybeans, aircrafts and automobiles. Manufactured items correspond to 58.6% of total exports, while basic products are responsible for 23.3% and semi-manufactured products, 15.4%.
Among the imports, the major items are petroleum and its derivatives, chemical and pharmaceutical products, industrial machines, electronic equipment and automobile parts. Brazil’s main trade partners include China, the United States, Argentina, Holland and Germany.
RS, the southernmost state of Brazil, is located between the Atlantic Ocean, Uruguay and Argentina. It is a strategic geographical development center of Mercosur, a common market comprised of Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Brazil.
The state's economy is strongly supported by farming and cattle raising. The industry, mainly related to food, fabric, shoes and furniture, has been making remarkable investments in other sectors such as the chemical and mechanical-metallurgical industries.
By maintaining balanced socio-economical indexes, Rio Grande do Sul has been granted the first place position in the quality of life ranking.
Area: 281,748.5 km2 Main Rivers: Camaquã, Rio dos Sinos, Ibicuí, Ijuí, Jacuí, Jaguarão, Pelotas, Quaraí, Taquari, Uruguai Weather: subtropical Most populated cities: Porto Alegre (1,436,123), Caxias do Sul (410,166), Pelotas (345,181), Canoas (332,056), Santa Maria (268.969), Gravataí (269.446), Novo Hamburgo (255.945), Viamão (260.740), Alvorada (213.894), São Leopoldo (211.663) Demonym: Gaúcho
10,695,532 (2010 Census) Density: 38 hab./km² (2010). Demographic Growth: 1.2% per year (1991-2006) Urban Population: 85.1% (2010) Housing: 3,464,544 (2005) Human Development Index - IDH: 0.832 (2005) Life Expectancy: Men - 71 Women - 79 Health - Infant Mortality Rate: 13.1 per thousand inhabitants (2006) Doctors: 2.08 per 1000 inhabitants (2007) Hospital Beds: 3.08 per 1000 inhabitants (2008)
Primary Education: 269,340 (74.5% public schools) Secondary Education: 1,692,432 (91.9% public schools) High School: 489,993 (87.5% public schools) Higher Education: 285,699 (14.9% public universities) Illiteracy Index: 6.7%
Governor: Tarso Genro Senators: 3 Federal Deputies: 31 State Deputies: 55 Voters: 8,112,236 Address: Palácio Piratini - Praça Marechal Deodoro, Downtown Porto Alegre. Phone: 55 51 3210-4156/4117
Porto Alegre, the state capital, is an important hub of regional attractions and one of the main Mercosur business centers.
With over 1,400,000 inhabitants, the city is characterized by intense cultural, educational, and commercial activities as well as service providers. It has an excellent hotel network, modern shopping malls, universities, theaters, and international restaurants. It guarantees the safety of its visitors, due to its solid infra-structure in telecommunications, transportation, health and public safety.
Large green areas, a dazzling sunset in the Guaíba estuary and traditional Gaucho hospitality are only some of the things that contribute to making Porto Alegre an unforgettable city.